Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, private communications)

(20) The definition of to have ‘brother’, aha inside BT, has actually at exactly the same time come augmented, although this mode is even used in Turoyo. Hertevin enjoys each other ?aha and ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), but Mandaic has only aha (Macuch 1965, 495).

Additionally, outside NENA, i’ve other terms and conditions: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)

(21) One instead mysterious product that is attested in most NENA languages but Sanandaj Christian (and therefore probably simply a chance pit in the evidence) are aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) argues this term comes in the resources ql ‘to be crooked’. The languages make use of the setting aqla, except Koy Sanjaq aqla and you may Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.

(22) Another word chatted about from the Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty-two, 134) was baxta ‘woman’, which has supplanted the Syriac atta in most NENA, although not inside the Turoyo or Mandaic. This term generally seems to result from Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It is fascinating to remember you to definitely an uneven plural endures when you look at the numerous languages: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you will Halabja inse.

(23) An urgent innovation pointed out because of the Noldeke (1868, 59) was rxata, corresponding to Syriac rhat. The change off h to x in this one word is utilized in the NENA dialects where in actuality the verb is attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi r-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).

(24) Another unexpected advancement ‘s the NENA verb ‘fear’, which takes the latest models zda?a beneficial, zdaya, and you can zdala from the various languages. Macuch and you will Panoussi (1974, 50) give a possible derivation about Syriac ezda za ‘be ldssingles indir shaken’. Versions on the infixed d are found in most the fresh NENA dialects in which the sources are attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-fearing (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)

Not totally all of one’s identifying options that come with NENA are located in a choice of Turoyo or Mandaic

I believe your more than makes it obvious that the NENA dialects share numerous unique characteristics that are located none in the last attested different Aramaic nor throughout the other lifestyle dialects. These features range along the domain names of phonology, morphology, additionally the lexicon.

Especially, the dialects regarding NENA concur in requirements dos, 9, 14, fifteen, 16, 21, and you can twenty two. All the languages in which i have advice also acknowledge conditions 20, 23, and you may twenty-four.

Just about Halabja agree in requirements 8 and you will eleven. Standard 6 is located in the languages but Halabja, Hertevin, and you will Sanandaj Christian.

Despite their inner divisions, this new NENA languages form a stunningly coherent group, divided certainly out of each other Turoyo and you may Mandaic. The positioning of those dialects outside of the NENA pale is out of matter.

The levels that possess was common across the NENA is particularly unbelievable when we think about the immense differences between various dialects. The fresh influence out of most other dialects on the NENA might have been both deep and you may broad, and the standard of common intelligibility between languages could be extremely brief. The many common innovations argue strongly having a familiar origin out of the NENA dialects, either in an individual dialect or in several directly related dialects. At the same time, we could discern several important bundles away from isoglosses and therefore portray this new limits away from dialect teams.

a) Brand new dialect out of Halabja will not express some very important innovations and this are observed because of all the remaining portion of the languages. It generally does not means a beneficial CCiC-ce preterite from intransitive verbs (8), it offers no b(it)- upcoming marker (10), and has now no 3rd person only one copula which have step 1 (11). This might be the absolute most basic division anywhere between languages out-of NENA. This means that kept languages function a team whereby innovations spread whenever you are Halabja stayed unchanged from the her or him.

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